Professor of Mechanical Engineering; Ralph E. and Eloise F. Cross Professor in Manufacturing
In an interview, Professor David Hardt discusses the changing landscape of manufacturing and how he has dedicated much of his career to teaching the principles of manufacturing.
New program offers alternative learning pathway to mastering fundamental skills needed for global manufacturing excellence and competitiveness.
A distinctive MIT program co-founded by Professor David Hardt trains engineers and managers who want to build careers on the leading edge of industrial production.
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (MIT)M.Eng.
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (MIT)Ph.D.
David E. Hardt
Ralph E. and Eloise F Cross Professor of Mechanical Engineering
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
77 Massachusetts Avenue
Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
Professor Hardt has been a member of the Mechanical Engineering faculty since 1979, and is a founding member of the Engineering Systems Division at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His disciplinary focus is system dynamics and control as applied to manufacturing. His teaches focuses on control, dynamics and manufacturing processes. His research has been on flexible automation, and process control, with an historical emphasis on welding and forming processes, and a current focus on polymer micro embossing. In welding, he pioneered the use of multivariable control techniques for modeling and control of GMAW, and demonstrated the use of adaptive control in these systems. In the forming processes, he has concentrated on the use of in-process measurements and real-time modeling to reduce sensitivity to machine and material variations, and has developed a flexible tooling and closed loop shape control concept for 3D sheet parts. The later has implemented in the aerospace industry with specific uses for repair part manufacture. His more recent work has been in the hot micro-embossing process for micro-fluidic device manufacture in micro-contact process scale-up using roll to roll processes. In both cases the theme of the work is novel equipment design and overall equipment and process statistical control.
His current projects include methods for lower cost large scale metal additive manufacturing, and the use of polymer additive methods for the large-scale production of low-cost homes using recycled materials.
Prof. Hardt has taught classes in both Mechanical Engineering and Manufacturing, and has led the creation of a professional graduate degree: Master of Engineering in Manufacturing” at MIT. This is the first professional degree offered by the ME Department at MIT, and is the culmination of many years of course and curriculum development.
Professor Hardt has supervised 27 PhD theses, 143 SM theses and 51 Master of Engineering Theses, and has served on the PhD committees of 45 students.
Recently he led the development of a MicroMaster credential on the EdX platform in the “Principles of Manufacturing” and contributed 2 of the 8 modules that comprise one semester of the MIT MEng in Manufacturing degree. This program has had awarded more than 3400 certificates in the first three years of operation.
Prof. Hardt served as Director of the MIT Laboratory for Manufacturing from 1985 - 1992 and as Engineering Co-Director for the MIT Leaders for Manufacturing Program from 1993 to 1998. As Co-Director of LFM, he has been a Co-Principle Investigator for the Next Generation Manufacturing Project. This project involved the participation of hundreds of manufacturing professionals, and combined the efforts of over 12 Industry associations to develop an industry view of the future of manufacturing enterprises. From 1999-2005, he was the MIT co-Chair of the Innovation in Manufacturing Systems and Technology Programme, part of the Singapore MIT Alliance (SMA), and following that as co-Chair of the SMA-2 programme “Manufacturing Systems and Technology” from 2006 – 2014.
Prof. Hardt also served as Associate Department Head for Teaching and Graduate Officer in the Mechanical Engineering Department.
He currently serves on the Technical Advisory Board of three companies: Digital Alloys, Industrial ML and MyTide Therapeutics.
Hardt, D.E., Ed. Measurement and Control in Batch Manufacturing, ASME Publication #H00244, New York, November 1982.
Hardt, D.E., Ed. Information Control Problems in Manufacturing Technology, (Proc. of the 4th IFAC/IFIP Symposium ), October, 1982.
Hardt, D.E., and Book, W.J., Eds. Control of Manufacturing Processes and Robotic Systems, ASME Publication #H00279, New York, November 1983.
Hardt, D.E., Srinivasan, C., and Komanduri, R., Eds. Modeling, Sensing and Control of Manufacturing Processes, ASME Publication #H00370, November 1986.
Hardt, D.E., Ed. Control Issues in Manufacturing Processes, ASME Publication #G00461, November, 1988.
Hardt, D.E., Neal, R., M., and Patterson, R., Next-Generation Manufacturing: A Framework for Action Agility Forum, January 1997.
Hardt, D.E., “Process Control of Thermosetting Composites: context and Review”, Chapter 11 in Advanced Composites Manufacturing (Gutowski, Editor) John Wiley & Sons 1997.
Papers in Refereed Journals
Hardt, D.E., "Determining the muscle forces in the leg during normal walking: an application and evaluation of optimization methods," Trans. of ASME, Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 100, 1978, pp. 72-78.
Hardt, D.E., and Mann, R.W., "A five body, three-dimensional dynamic analysis of walking," J. Biomech., l3, no. 5, 1980, pp. 455-458.
Hardt, D.E., Roberts, M.A., and Stelson, K.A., "Closed Loop Shape Control of a Roll Bending Process," Transactions of ASME, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 104 , no. 4, 1982.
Zacksenhouse, M. and Hardt, D.E., "Weld Pool Impedance Identification for Size Measurement and Control," Transactions of ASME, Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, l05, no. 4, 1983.
Ettouney, O. and Hardt, D.E., "A Method for In-Process Failure Prediction in Cold Upset Forging," Transactions ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, 105, no. 3, 1983, pp. 161-167.
Zalucky, A., and Hardt, D.E., "Active Control of Robot Structure Deflections," Transactions of ASME Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, 105, no. 1, Mar. 1984, pp. 63-69.
Hardt, D.E., Garlow, D.A. and Weinert, J.B., "A Model of Full Penetration Arc-Welding for Control System Design", J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control,, 107, Mar. 1985.
Hardt, D.E. and Katz, J.M., "Ultrasonic Measurement of Weld Penetration," Welding Journal, Sept. 1984, pp. 273s-281s.
Hardt, D.E. and Chen, B., "Control of a Sequential Brakeforming Process," J. of Engineering for Industry, 107, May 1985, pp. 141-145.
Bates, B. and Hardt, D.E., "A Real-Time Calibrated Thermal Model for Closed-Loop Weld Bead Geometry Control," J. of Dynamic System, Measurement and Control, l07, 1985.
Hale, M.B., and Hardt, D.E., "Dynamic Analysis and Control of a Roll Bending Process," IEEE Control Systems Magazine, Apr. 1987.
Slocum, A.H., Hardt, D.E., and Greenspan, L., "Development of a Six D.O.F Position and Orientation Sensing Device: Design Theory and Testing," Int. Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 28, no. 4, 1988.
Doumanidis, C.C., and Hardt, D.E., "A Model for In-Process Control of Thermal Properties during Welding," J. of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Mar. 1989.
Tam, A., and Hardt, D.E., "Weld Pool Impedance for Pool Geometry Measurement: Stationary and Non-Stationary Pools", J. Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Dec. 1989.
Webb, R.D., and Hardt, D.E., "A Transfer Function Description of Sheet Metal Forming for Process Control," ASME J. of Engineering for Industry, 1990.
Doumanidis, C.C., and Hardt, D.E., "Multivariable Adaptive Control of Thermal Properties During Welding," ASME J. of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control, 113, Mar. 1990, pp 82-92.
Doumanidis, C.C., and Hardt, D.E., "Simultaneous Control of Heat Affected Zone and Cooling Rate During Arc Welding," Welding Journal, May 1990.
Suzuki, A., Hardt, D.E., and Valvani, L., "Application of Adaptive Control Theory to On line GTA Weld Geometry Regulation," ASME J. of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control, 113, Mar. 1990, pp 93-103.
Sharon, A, Hogan, N. and Hardt, D.E., "The Macro/Micro Manipulator: An Improved Architecture for Robot Control," IEEE Trans on Robotics and Automation, Dec. 1988.
Sharon, A, Hogan, N. and Hardt, D.E., "Controller Design in the Physical Domain," J. of Franklin Institute, 328, 1991, pp. 697-721.
Hardt, D.E., Wright, A., and Constantine, E., "A Design Oriented Model of Plate Forming for Shipbuilding," Journal of Ship Production, Nov. 1990.
Hardt, D.E., Wright, A., and Constantine, E., “A Model of Sequential Bending for Manufacturing Simulation,” ASME J. of Engineering for Industry, 114, May, 1992, pp. 181-187.
Fenn, R. and Hardt, D.E., "Real-Time Control of Sheet Stability During Forming,” ASME Journal of Engineering for Industry, Dec. 1992.
Hardt, D.E., "Modeling and Control of Manufacturing Processes: Getting More Involved”, ASME J. of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control, 115, June. 1993, pp 291-300.
Song, J.B., and Hardt, D.E., “Closed-Loop Control of Weld Depth Using a Thermally-Based Depth Estimator”, Welding Journal, September, 1993.
Song, J.B.,and Hardt, D.E. "Dynamic Modeling and Adaptive Control of Gas Metal Arc Welding" ASME J. of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control, Sept., 1994.
Hardt, D.E, Fenn, R.C., and Bakkestuen, R.S., “Feedback in the Forming Press”, MetalForming, March 1995, pp. 45-51
Walczyk, D. and Hardt, D.E., “Rapid Tooling for Sheet Metal Forming using Profiled Edge Laminations -Design Principles and Demonstration," ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering Aug. 1998.
Walczyk, D. and Hardt, D.E., "Design and Analysis of Reconfigurable Discrete Dies for Sheet Metal Forming," SME Journal of Manufacturing Systems Fall 1999..
Walczyk, D. and Hardt, D.E., "Rapid Tooling for Sheet Metal Forming using Profiled Edge Laminations -Design Principles and Demonstration," ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering Aug. 1998.
Walczyk, D. and Hardt, D.E., "A Comparison of Rapid Fabrication Methods for Sheet Metal Forming Dies, ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 121, May 1999, pp 214-224..
Hardt, D.E., Norfleet, N.A., Valentin, V.M, and Parris, A., “In-Process Control of Strain in a Stretch Forming Process”,.ASME Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 123, 4, - October 2001 - pp. 496-503.
D. V. Tran, H. Y. Zheng, Y.C. Lam, V. M. Murukeshan, J. C. Chai and D. E. Hardt, “Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage Morphologies Of Crystalline Silicon By Sub-Threshold Pulses”, Optics and Lasers in Engineering 43 (2005) 977−986.
D. V. Tran, Y. C. Lam, V. M. Murukeshan, J. C. Chai, H. Y. Zheng, and D. E. Hardt, “Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage And Ablation Of Crystalline Silicon: A Study In The Incubation Effect”, International Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology (2004), Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 26−33.
Y. C. Lam, D. V. Tran, H. Y. Zheng, V. M. Murukeshan, J. C. Chai, and D. E. Hardt, “Surface Damage Of Crystalline Silicon By Low Fluence Femtosecond Laser Pulses”, Surface Review and Letters, Vol. 11, No. 2 (2004) 217−221.
D. V. Tran, Y. C. Lam, B.S. Wong, H. Y. Zheng, and D. E. Hardt, “Quantification Of Thermal Energy Deposited In Silicon By Multiple Femtosecond Laser Pulses”, Optics Express, Vol. 14, Issue 20, pp. 9261-9268 (October 2006).
Tran, D. V., Lam, Y.C., Zheng, H.Y., Wong, B.S., and Hardt, D.E., “Direct Observation of the Temperature Field During Ablation of Materials by Multiple Femtosecond Laser Pulses” Applied Surface Science, Vol. 263, No. 17, June 2007. pp.1790-1794.
Rzepniewski, A.K., and Hardt, D.E., “Development of General Multivariable Run-by Run Control Methods with Application to a Sheet Forming Process” International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Volume 48, Issue 5, April 2008, Pages 599-608
Dirckx, M., Taylor, H.K., and Hardt, D.E., ”Tooling for Micro-and Nano- Imprinting and its Consequences for Manufacturing” International Journal of Nano-Manufacturing” April, 2007)
Gang Fu, SB Tor , N P Loh, B Y Tay and D E Hardt A Micro Powder Injection Molding apparatus for high aspect ratio metal micro-structures production, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, (2007) pp 1803-1809.
Fu G; S B Tor; N H Loh; B Y Tay; D E Hardt “Demolding of powder injection molded micro-structures: analysis, simulation and experiment, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 18(7), Art no. 075024 2008 .
L P Yeo , S C Joshi Y C Lam, Mary B Chan-Park, , and D E Hardt, “Numerical analyses of peel demolding for UV embossing of high aspect ratio micro-patterning”, Journal of Microsystem Technologies, Volume 15 , Issue 4 (January 2009) Pages 581-593.
B Saha, E Liu, S B Tor, N W Khun, D E Hardt and J H Chun, “ Anti-sticking behavior of DLC-coated silicon micro-molds”, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19 (2009) 105025 (7pp)
Henann, D.L., Srivastava, V., Taylor, H.K., Hale, M.R., Hardt, D.E., and Anand, L. “Metallic glasses: viable tool materials for the production of surface microstructures in amorphous polymers by micro-hot-embossing”, J. Micromech. Microeng. 19 (2009) 115030 (10pp)
B Saha, E Liu, S B Tor, N W Khun , D E Hardt and J H Chun, “Replication performance of Si-N-DLC-coated Si micro-molds in micro-hot-embossing 2010 J. Micromech. Microeng. 20, No. 4, 2010.
Fu, G, Tor, S.B., Loh, N.H. and Hardt , D.E., Micro-hot-embossing of 316L stainless steel micro-structures, Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, August 2009.
Hale, M, Eusener, T, and Hardt, D.E., “Process Robustness of Hot Embossing Microfluidic Devices” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 132, 030920 (2010) (8 pages)
Hardt, D.E., Anthony, B.W. and Tor, S.B. ‘A teaching factory for polymer microfabrication – μFac’, to be published: Int. J. Nanomanufacturing, Vol 6, pp 137-151, August, 2010.
Fu, G, Tor, S.B., Loh, N.H. and Hardt , D.E., “Fabrication of robust tooling for mass production of polymeric microfluidic devices” J. Micromech. Microeng. 20 (2010) 085019(6pp)
B. Saha, E. Liu, S.B. Tor, D.E. Hardt J.H. Chun N.W. Khun, “Improvement in lifetime and replication quality of Si micromold using N:DLC:Ni coatings for microfluidicdevices”, Sensors and Actuators B 150 (2010) 174–182.
Fu, G, Tor, S.B., Hardt , D.E and., Loh, N.H., “Effects of processing parameters on the micro-channels replication in microfluidic devices fabricated by micro injection molding” Microsyst Technol (2011) 17:1791–1798
Dirckx, M.E. and Hardt, D.E., “Analysis and Characterization of Demolding of Hot Embossed Polymer Microstructures”, , J. Micromech. Microeng. 21 (2011) 085024 (10pp).
Mazzeo, A. D., Lustrino, M.E., and Hardt, D.E, “Bubble Removal in Centrifugal Casting of Polymers: Combined Effects of Buoyancy and Diffusion”, Polymer Science and Engineering, (52), no.1 , 2012, 80-90.
Mazzeo, A.D. and Hardt, D.E., “Centrifugal Casting of Microfluidic Components With PDMS”, Trans. ASME, J. Micro and Nano-Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp 1-8, 2013.
B. Saha, M. Dirckx, D. E. Hardt, S. B. Tor, E. Liu, J. H. Chun, “Effect of sputtering power on friction coefficient and surface energy of co-sputtered titanium and molybdenum disulfide coatings and its performance in micro hot-embossing”, Microsystem Technolgy April 2013.
Petrzelka, J.E. and Hardt, D.E. “Static load-displacement behavior of PDMS microfeatures for soft lithography”, J. Micromech. Microeng. 22, no.7, 075015 (12pp), June 2012.
Nietner, L.F. and Hardt, D.E., “Direct-Write Photolithography for Cylindrical Tooling Fabrication in Roll-to-Roll Microcontact Printing”, ASME Journal of Micro-Nano Manufacturing, Sept. 2015.
Saha, B., Toh, W.Q., Liu, E., Tor, S.B., Hardt, D.E., and Lee, J., “A review on the importance of surface coating of micro/nano-mold in micro/nano-molding processes”, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, Volume 26, Number 1, November 2015.
Mustafa, Aalim M., Hawwa, Muhammad A., and Hardt David E., “Vibration of an Axially Moving Beam Supported by a Slightly Curved Elastic Foundation,” to be published - Journal of Vibration and Control, May 2017.
Hizir, F.E. and Hardt, D.E. “Phase-field modeling of liquids splitting between separating surfaces and its application to high-resolution roll-based printing technologies’, Physics of Fluids 29, 052007 (2017) `
Hawwa, Muhammad A., Ali, Sajid, and Hardt David E., “Vibration of an Axially Moving Web within a Roll-to-Roll System,” J. Vib. Eng. Technol. (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42417-018-0047-y
Xian Du, David Hardt, Brian Anthony, “Real time imaging of thiol-gold on a moving web in roll-to-roll process by condensation figures”, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, May , 2020. (DOI: 10.1109/TIE.2019.2914632)